Enzymes in the body help bring out different chemical functions like digestion of food, assist in the procedure of offering cellular energy, support the brain functions, repairing and recovering processes within the body, breaking down toxins, detoxification of blood, and so on. In brief, our bodies will stop to function, if there were no enzymes.
Enzymes are proteins that consist of long chain of amino acids. The amino acids are folded in three-dimensional structures. Enzymes are produced in the body by particular organs like the salivary glands, stomach, pancreas, little intestine or originate from the food we eat. Enzymes and their function is to essentially catalyze reactions with minimum quantity of energy utilized to perform the particular responses. There are hundreds of recognized enzymes that carry out a specific chain reaction. Functions of enzymes are determined according to the shape of the enzyme. Let us understand more about the different types of enzymes present in the body.
Names of Enzymes in the Body
There are six significant classes of enzymes found in the body. The following are the names of enzymes and their functions:
Ligase: This enzyme in the body requires ATP and binds nucleotides together in the nucleic acids. It also binds simple sugars in polysaccarides.
Lyase: This enzyme in the body breaks the bonds in between carbon atoms or carbon nitrogen bond.
Hydrolase: This enzyme in the body breaks large molecules into simpler molecules by including a water particle.
Transferase: This enzyme in the body cuts a part of one molecule and attaches it to another particle.
Isomerase: The atoms in a molecule are reorganized without changing their chemical formula. This helps in getting carbohydrate molecules for certain enzymatic procedures.
Oxido-reductase: This enzyme removes hydrogen or electrons from one particle and contributes it to another particle. This enzyme is mainly involved in mitochondrial energy production.
Kinase: This enzyme in the body attaches a phosphate group to a high energy bond. It is a very crucial enzyme needed for ATP production and activation of particular enzymes.
Enzymes in the Body and their Functions
There are 3 kinds of enzymes; food enzymes, digestion enzymes and metabolic enzymes. These enzymes are explained in the following paragraphs:
Food enzymes exist in all raw foods like animal or plant items. The names of enzymes that are plant-based are protease, lipase, amylase and cellulase. They include active systems that help break down fat, proteins and carbohydrates in the body at the broadest series of pH within the body. They likewise assist in maintaining a correct gastrointestinal system and assist the body produce more metabolic enzymes. Pepsin, bromelain, etc. are animal based enzymes that help in food digestion, as an anti-inflammatory agent. Trypsin helps in braking down arginine or lysine and is active at alkaline pH. The other enzymes that carry out chemical responses are rennin that readies the milk for the action of pepsin and lipase by braking it down to proteins and fats.
Digestion enzymes are produced by the body that assists in food digestion of food. The names of enzymes that assist in digestion are:
Amylase: This enzyme helps in breaking down carbohydrates. It is discovered in saliva, pancreas and digestive juices.
Proteases: It assists in food digestion of proteins. It is present in the stomach, pancreatic and digestive juices.
Lipases: Lipases assist in food digestion of fats. It is seen in the stomach, pancreatic juice and food fats.
Amylase I and II are produced by the salivary glands initially and after that by the pancreas. They break the bonds between carb particles and produce disaccharides and trisaccharides. Amylase I is triggered by chewing and transforms starch to maltose. Amylase II is produced just by the pancreas and carries on with the nac glutathione procedure that has been started with Amylase I.
Pepsin is produced as a proenzyme pepsinogen by the chief cells of the stomach. It gets triggered by the hydrogen in the stomach and produces hydrochloric acid at the same time. It breaks the bonds in between amino acids in the proteins and produces brief chain polypeptides. It likewise kills any pathogen that enters the body through food.
Pancreas produce trypsin as a proenzyme trypsinogen. It deals with polypeptides and proteins producing brief chain peptides. It is likewise functions as a triggering enzyme for other pancreatic proteinases. Chymotrypsin produced by the pancreas acts on proteins and polypetides producing short-chain peptides.
Pancreas produce carboxypeptidase as proenzyme procarboxypeptidase. It acts on proteins and polypeptides producing short-chain peptides and amino acids. Another enzyme produced by the pancreas is elastase, that acts on elastin producing brief chain of peptides. If there are bile salts present, the pancreas produce lipase that targets triglycetides producing fats and monoglycerides. Vitamin C, glutathione and cysteine play crucial roles in activation of lipase.
Nuclease produced by pancreas acts on nucleic acids like RNA and DNA to produce nitrogen bases and simple sugars. The mucosal cells of the little intestine secrete enterokinase that reaches the lumen by shedding of epithelial cells. It acts on trypsinogen to produce trypsin. Mucosal cells of small intestinal tracts likewise produce maltase, sucrase and lactase to target sugars like maltose, sucrose and lactose to produce monosaccharides. Peptidase is another enzyme in the body produced by mucosal cells of little intestinal tract that target dipeptides and tripeptides producing amino acids.
The metabolic enzymes are found moving all over the body systems and organs. They perform lots of chain reactions within the body cells. Superooxide dismutase, an antioxidant and catalase, the enzyme that breaks down hydrogen peroxide are two crucial metabolic enzymes.
These are just a few of the numerous enzymes in the body and their functions. Enzymes are needed for cellular functions, conclusion of digestion, nutrient absorption, combating complimentary radicals and supporting liver detoxing. There are numerous enzymes that are not produced by our body and need to be supplemented through external sources. Thus, it is necessary to maintain a healthy diet plan. There are lots of enzyme supplements available in the market that can assist you conquer deficiencies, under medical guidance. Excessive intake of enzymes may lead to headaches, bloating, acne, gas, etc
. There are countless functions of enzymes, other than those discussed in this short article. Our blood is prevented from getting clot in specific parts of the body by a fibrinolytic enzyme. There are many such chain reaction that assist in the regular performance of the body. Therefore, enzymes in the body can be called the concealed heroes of a well-functioning body, without whom the body will cease to operate.